themeda triandra habitat

Reserve carbon and photosynthesis: their, Danckwerts JE, Aucamp AJ. Complimentary dominance of, Downing DH, Marshall DJ. This could be a very interesting future research project. Use it as a lawn substitute for small areas where it will not receive excessive foot traffic or as an unusual border plant at the front of a bed. It was more widespread prior to European settlement; it is very susceptible to overgrazing and has been replaced by Black Speargrass (Heteropogon contortus) owing to a combination of fire and grazing. T. triandra seemed to be the least tolerant to clipping, whereas A. distachyos was intermediate. Schulze ED, Farquhar GD, Miller JM, Schulze W, Walker BH, Williams RJ. In: Booysen, Tedder MJ, Morris CD, Fynn RWS, Kirkman KP. Mean temperatures, 10–20 mm below the soil surface are rarely raised greater. Red grass occurs throughout southern and East Africa, and in many other parts of the world. in the herb layer of False Thornveld of the Eastern Province. 1995. 1995. At one end of the seed is a callused, base whereas at the other end an awn extends out approxi-, be influenced by air temperature, with an increase in seed, shedding during periods of high temperature and a decline, with lower temperatures (McDougall 1989). native grass-based in temperate south-east Australia. In addition, Hodgkinson et al. Themeda triandra kangaroo grass Themeda villosa silky kangaroo grass Legal Status. Proceedings of the Annual Congresses of the Grassland, populations from southern Africa in response, Proceedings of the Annual Congresses of the, grassland: estimates of phytomass and root element, Rangelands in the new millenium: proceed-, tillers in relation to burning in the Natal. of critical importance in supporting local populations of both native and introduced herbivores, and is thus central to Reeder JD, Schuman GE. What is the correct name for kangaroo grass? Patch colonisation in a savanna grassland. The influence of grazing on seed. 1996. 1997; Swarup. Hagon MW, Groves RH. Bot. 1982. Forssk. 1971. While fire temperatures will vary, depending on fuel load, type of fire (head or back fire), and, other factors, typically, surface temperatures can range. 1995. 1979, Snyman, 1989). In a study of 10, the ungulate diet, none were able to meet ruminal nutrient, requirements (Ben-Shahar 1993). A few (<10) large termite mounds Trinervitermes spp. Often regarded as undesir-, able, under some circumstances patches can give rise to, improved grassland condition. Vegetative tillers that do not become reproductive, despite the elongation of internodes and an elevated apical, meristem (Scott and Rabie 1956) are called blind tillers, (Tainton and Booysen 1963, Dye and Walker 1987). Involucral spikelets 2 pairs, 7-11 mm long, elliptic-lanceolate; lower glume 7-10 mm long, elliptic, 2-keeled; upper glume 7-10 x 1-2 mm, lanceolate; lower floret empty; upper floret male; first lemma 7-10 x 1-2 mm, elliptic-lanceolate; second lemma c. 1 mm long, ovate-acute; stamens 3. The prediction that awns would be longer in drier grassland and have greater motility to enable them to move quickly and further to find scarce germination sites was tested in KwaZulu-Natal. 591. Finally, grazing by different animals may impact on, seedling survival. Monk KA, Fretes YD, Reksodiharjo-Lilley G. 1997. Photosynthetic pathways and, the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/, Evans LT, Knox RB. defoliation. Similar results were found for P (Opperman et al. 2002, Kirkman 2002b), tiller production (Twine, (Barnes 1989a, Snyman 2009a), NSC concentration (Barnes, 1989a), green leaf production (Barnes 1989b), inflores-, cence production (Barnes 1989b), tiller height (Bailey and, Mappledoram 1983, Hatch and Tainton 1993), tuft height, (Hatch and Tainton 1993, Peddie et al. management of animal and plant communities for conservation. Herbaceous change. The effect of clipping and water, stress on the production of selected grass species in the Yemen, Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL, Dixon KW, Trengove RD. Time of mowing and, burning veld: short term effects on production and tiller, Tainton NM, Mentis MT. It is the most palatable grass, and just, as bread is said to be the staff of life to us, so, can be regarded as the staff of life to the grazing animal’, across the country and is thought to have been the original, dominant species in all Australia’s grasslands (Mitchell, and Miller 1990). The influence of time on, defoliation on the vigour of a tall grassveld sward in the next, Richards JH, Mueller RJ, Mott JJ. The effect of fire on forage. Forsk. 19. that are generally neutral (Coultas and Yerokun 1996, Ingram 2001, Muir and Alage 2001), though it will tolerate, basic (Heady 1966) and acidic soils (Coultas and Yerokun, low (0.3–1.5% organic carbon [C], 0.08–0.15% total nitrogen, occasionally found on saline soils (Smit et al, and Yerokun 1996) but production declines rapidly as salinity, increases (Rogers et al. 1989, Dube and Gwarazimba 2000). (Skerman and Riveros 1990, Petheram and Kok 1991, Kinyamario and Macharia 1992, Wheaton 1994, Coultas and, Yerokun 1996, O’Connor and Bredenkamp 1997, Morris et, al. Reaction of three veld grasses to different. Fossey A, Liebenberg H. 1987. 2003) and other nutrients present (Ben-Shahar 1993, Ingram. A checklist of bird communities In Tamhini Wildlife Sanctuary, the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra... Population assessment of Broad-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola platyurus around Belgaum, Karnataka, and n... It produces spear-shaped seeds that are activated by water, either through increased humidity or when it rains. 2012. Great Dividing Range (Hayman 1960). 1775; Gamble, Fl. first indication that grassland degradation is occurring, commonly leading to reduced diversity, soil erosion and, lowered secondary production. organization of a South African mesic grassland. As Themeda triandra hispida and T. triandra punctata Lightfoot, C. (1975) . The effect of different winter and, Dube S, Gwarazimba VEE. Other additives also influence germination. Habitat Dominant in the extensive Acacia-grasslands at elevations from 1,200 - 2,000 metres in East Africa, and widespread elsewhere in grassland and in open woodlands, especially on clay soils, at elevations from sea level to over 3,000 metres Known or potential benefits of the species for humans, at a direct economic level, as instruments of education, prospecting, eco-tourism, etc. Resting plants during active growth followed by, defoliation had no value in fostering vigour. It keeps growing during the warm and cool seasons in the subtropics, which is an exception among andropogonoid grasses (Tothill, 1992). germination (Lock and Milburn 1970, Hagon 1976). vol. This comparison is, confined to South Africa and the relative dependency on, seed production versus tillering across the large latitudinal. Managers are advised to only increase grazing frequency on relatively high nutrient soils, while maximizing recovery on poorer nutrient soils. Photosynthesis and respiration of plants in the. A decrease in percent cover of Themeda in grassland biomes is usually a direct indicator of a low grazing value, species richness, plant diversity and ecosystem function, ... With an increasing focus on the role of grasslands and savannas in biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services other than as a forage source, comprehensive information on keystone species is invaluable as a means of developing management and conservation strategies for these vegetation types, ... T. triandra was least preferred species because of its rapid decline in abundance after establishment. Because it is widespread across these Stud. On plants and herbivores. Growth, nutrient cycling and grazing of three. 1977), which negatively impacts on leaf, production (Booysen et al. Survival, growth and escape from, herbivory are determined by habitat and herbivore species for, Allsopp N. 1998. and phospoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [PCK]). Without doubt, the factor that has, the greatest potential impact is rainfall. : a case of intra-specific divergence, Plants of the northern Australian rangelands. 1998; Sivar. Phytosociology, of the B land type in the Newcastle - Memel - Chelmsford Dam, Smith EL. 2004). Is a long hygroscopic awn an advantage for Themeda triandra in drier areas? 1987. 1997, Wand et al. Kyoto: Winrock International. 2018). 2009. Red oat grass grows in pure stands on lateritic red earths (latosolic soils) of poor structure, low in lime, phosphorus and potash (FAO, 2011). published literature (Snyman 2009a, 2009b). water infiltration, water retention capacity and soil fertility, increased surface sealing and wind and water erosion (du, Preez and Snyman 1993, 2003, Mills et al. While no studies have specifically looked at the, it appears that flooding has a negative impact on growth. 2005. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. 1994. 1982, O’Connor and Pickett 1992, Baxter et al. Swemmer et al. Seedling establishment of. The nutritive value of herbage in semi-arid lands, Karunaichamy KSTK, Paliwal K. 1993. The floral morphology and embryology of, Yadav AK, Kumar A, Singh V. 2003. Tiller growth is more efficient physiologically in, late spring and summer as indicated by much higher relative, growth rates (mass of new biomass produced per mass of, biomass present per day) that occurs although, because of, the increased tiller mass, the absolute growth rate (mass, of new biomass produced per day) is higher during late, summer and autumn (Danckwerts 1987b). Responses of. Thenmala Div. Oosthuizen et al, observed that with an increase in water stress, produc-, tion of water-soluble proteins increased with the majority of, Seasonal patterns of mineral nutrient concentrations in, there are few studies regarding mineral uptake. In a pot experiment Groves et al. Effects of grazing management on botanical composition of. pp 544–672. According to van der Westhuizen et, al. Liebenberg H, Lubbinge J, Fossey A. on site conditions and/or the identity of the competitor. 1999. been no attempt to review and synthesise the considerable body of research undertaken on this grass. Shaw JFD, Mitchell AA. Themeda triandra – Urelytrum agropyroides Management Unit: Grass-palmveld. The seed biology of. Under shaded, etiolated growth of existing tillers and leaves (Ghebrehiwot et, al. 1984. (1993) noted greater emergence at, 10 mm depth than at either 20 or 30 mm or if the seed lies, on the soil surface. The causes of patch, grazing are not well known, but it is likely the quality of new, growth (McNaughton 1992), the lack of moribund material. occurs. pp 317–319. T. triandra is the only species occurring in Africa, but it is also found in Asia and Australasia. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. 1976, Barnes 1989a). In: Cowling RM, Richardson DM. Each grass species supported exotic thrips taxa, although the abundance of these taxa on each grass was very low. Shading also appears to play a role in tiller production. In particular, the flexible system, demands an informed decision-making process, which is, likely to be the cornerstone of any successful grassland, management approach. 1996. increases shortly after defoliation) from the roots, crown, and other storage organs (Ingram 2001). This increase was due to the doubling of, root biomass (sampled to a depth of 100 mm) at the end, of the growing season compared to the end of the dormant, period (Ingram 2001). following rangeland degradation in a semi-arid South Africa. In semi-arid, grassland areas of South Africa, researchers documented. Staples RR. Effects of time-since-fire on the tussock. Hodgkinson et, al. nutrition is needed in restoration, 6) Disturbance is detrimental, 7) Techniques used to restore temperate grasslands also work for TOGGB, 8) Grasslands represent early stages of forest succession, 9) Grassland restoration is only about grasses, and 10) Grassland 1975. Sindel et al. Mott JJ, Andrew MH. & Timberlake, J. for accumulation of forage for dormant season grazing. T. triandrawill not tolerate continuous grazing. 1986. The active, basal twisted section of the awn extends to just past the last, most pronounced bend ('knee') whereas the tip section is passive, providing a lever for movement, ... Empirical evidence from previous studies shows T. triandra decreases in abundance under heavy or selective grazing whereas E. plana and E. muticus increase (Foran et al. PhD thesis. In spite of its significant ecological and economic importance, there has 1986. It is an important climax species that is well adapted to fire, a common element of many areas in the grazing lands of Lesotho. found further than 1.75 m from a mother plant (Everson 1994. Pres. In the, first instance, overgrazing is likely to lead to a decline in, plant vigour, thereby impacting on reproductive fitness, (O’Connor 1991a, 1994) and leading to a reduction in seed, output (O’Connor and Pickett 1992). Impact of grazing management on the carbon and nitrogen, Scott D, Rabie JW. As Themeda triandra hispida and T. triandra punctata. Field experiments on a plot scale. Of greater importance, though, was that, in all of the papers reviewed two differences were always. In: Iglovikov VG, Movsisyants AP, Turner CL, Seastedt TR, Dyer MI. The, reason for this may well be related to the fact that where, therefore it is unlikely that seeds would germinate, or that, conditions are unfavourable for the survival and growth of, new seedlings through the duration of the winter (Hagon, Higher temperatures (constant or alternating) have also, been shown to dramatically increase rates of germina-, tion (Lock and Milburn 1970, Cresswell and Nelson, 1972a, Groves 1975, Hagon 1976, Mott 1978, Baxter et, al. on plant processes, e.g. In a study over a rainfall gradient, the dominant species under conditions of optimal or under-, utilisation across the gradient, but under conditions of, zones (Steenekamp and Bosch 1995). root:shoot ratios are between 0.3 to 7.1 (Groves 1965. Grasslands cover approximately 22% of Ol Pejeta, dominated by Themeda triandra, Penisetum stramineum and Penisetum mezianum Open bush land covers approximately 53% of Ol Pejeta, dominated by Acaciadrepanolobium Fingal Head, whose first inhabitants are members of the Cudginburra Clan, is a famous beauty spot in the far north coast … 1989. Steenekamp SJ, Bosch OJH. Increasing grazing frequency or the severity of it has been noted to have a negative impact on T. triandra (the dominant grass species of the study area), ... Short duration high intensity grazing causes grasses to be rejuvenated and develop new shoots when allowed to rest following defoliation (rotational grazing) (Ferraro & Oesterheld, 2002;Stichler, 2002;Swemmer & Knapp, 2008). 1993. It can also grow on a wide range of other soils, including loose sa… 1990b. Growth and nutrient. Előfordulása. Recent work by Flematti et al, (2004) indicates that the compound responsible for, this increase in germination appears to be buteonolide, al. In other grass, species, differential rates of loss of nutrients, mainly N, has, been proposed as a mechanism for varying competiveness. 2005). in two savanna grasslands: a plant’s eye view. This, was probably due to both a decrease in vigour and an. 1993. 1984). Kerala Grasses 202. It is an important climax or subclimax species fire on germination in five common veld grasses. zone plants. Morris et al. Habár a trópusokon is előfordul, a mérsékelt övet kedveli. 1984. Burning causes, long-term changes in soil organic matter content of a South, Fynn RWS, Morris CD, Edwards TJ. 1995. Oesterheld and McNaughton 1988, McNaughton 1992, Turner et al. 2002. Mucina L, Hoare DB, Lötter MC, du Preez PJ, Rutherford MC, Scott-Shaw CR, Bredenkamp GJ, Powrie LW, Scott L, Camp, KGT et al. Dr. Chandra Barooah & Iftikher Ahmed (2014) Assam Science Technology and Environment Council. Flowering, seed formation, and an increase in soil water all cause starch to be. the production of two types of secondary or axillary tillers. Tillering in tussock grasses. richness, cover and ecosystem function. 1989. Rehabilitation means restoring the previous condition. OZFACE: Australian, savannas free air carbon dioxide enrichment facility. Ash and Corfield (1998) noted, that grazing in the early part of the wet season increased, previous three seasons showed lower etiolated growth and, a normal occurrence in extensively grazed grasslands, can. Because it is widespread across these areas it has great economic and ecological value, as it is a relatively palatable species across most of its range. 1990, Skerman and Riveros 1990). Simon BK. Allsopp 1998, Ingram 2001, Bennett and Adams 2001, Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of all, grasslands and any variation in its abundance and nature, will profoundly affect soil processes. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock-forming grass widespread in Africa, Australia, Asia and the Pacific. 2009b. 1981. Awns (n = 100) were collected from 16 sites across a mean annual precipitation gradient (575–1 223 mm), ranging from 271−1 097 m asl. Wiseman R, Morris CD, Granger JE. FRLHT's ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants, Bengaluru. lignin, lipids, aromatics, proteins and alkaloids) leads to, of cell components of aging leaves (Tieszen and Boutton, 1988, Ingram 2001). 2007, O’Connor 2008, Ruppert et al. It has been suggested that the longevity of, tussocks is around 10 years (Mott et al. 1963. Hatch GP, Tainton NM. 1989). 1998c. While the thresholds, and the underpinning coefficients, may not reflect the opinion of all grassland ecologists, they are transparent, testable and can be updated or modified to incorporate additional criteria and a greater diversity of stakeholders. seeds could disappear from the seed bank (Snyman 2013). 2017). Response of tall, grassveld to different intensities, seasons and frequencies, Tainton NM, Groves RH, Nash R. 1977. N, Palmer AR, Milton SJ, Kirkman KP, Kerley GIH, Hurt CR, of the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, 26 July – 1 August, Stoltz CW, Danckwerts JE. Title. Food. and production of two East African graminoids. Selection of plant species by cattle grazing. 1985. In both greenhouse (McNaughton 1992) and field experi-, ments (Everson et al. The period, Tainton and Booysen 1963, Danckwerts et al. semi-arid shrublands and a mesic grassland in South Africa. Habit : Herb. How might the loss be recovered? Within 3 d, photosyn-, thate produced by new leaves exceeds C mobilisation and, thereafter is the major source for carbohydrate production, (Danckwerts 1993). 1995b. Evolutionary and ecological. the soil seed bank (O’Connor and Pickett 1992, O’Connor, the size of the seed bank is dependent on the current years, seed production (O’Connor and Pickett 1992), which can be, heavily impacted by drought (Snyman 2010), sustained or. unshaded) between 13% and 61% of seed germinated, with the remainder either having decayed before emerging. It was more widespread prior to European settlement; it is very susceptible to overgrazing and has been replaced by Black Speargrass (Heteropogon contortus) owing to a combination of fire and grazing. 2009, anatomical adaptations to aridity, drought and high temper-. 1988). Hodgkinson et al. 2001, Wand and, ration rates on a per leaf area basis, but because of the, decrease in leaf area there is a decline in these two parame-. ), and management: Australian perspectives and intercontinental, McNaughton SJ. Savanna. Ez az … The effect of fire on the population, dynamics of native grasses in tropical savannas of north-western, Mott JJ, Ludlow MM, Richards JH, Parsons AD. Dormancy and germination of five native grass, species from savannah woodland communities of the Northern, Mott JJ. Garden DL, Lodge GM, Friend DA, Dowling PM, Orchard BA. 2003, Snyman 2004a, 2004d), though some studies have observed an increase in produc-, tion on a plot scale (Norman 1969). Ecosystem carbon storage under different land uses in three. 1992. From the Arabic thaemed (little water), possibly referring to water storage cells on the upper surface of the leaves or to the habitat of the type specimen in Yemen, fide L.K.A.Chippindall and A.O.Crook, Grasses of Southern Africa (1976). MSc (Agric) thesis, University of the, Ndawula-Senyimba MS. 1972. Forsk. It allows for burning of previously rested grassland if, and when necessary. Themeda australis is an extremely widespread species, but in this community it may have a distinctive appearance, being prostrate and having glaucous leaves. Five varieties have been. This implies that, although a relatively uncompet-, itive species, its relative competitive ability can improve. 2012. Sigwela AM, Lechmere-Oertel RG, Bosenberg JD. In: Danckwerts JE, Teagues DR, Hobson FO (eds), Danckwerts JE. It appears that, seeds shed in late summer or autumn are ‘programmed’, to maintain dormancy through the following winter and, then germinate in the following spring, summer or autumn, (Adams 1996, Snyman and van der Westhuizen 2012). 1978. Effects of atmospheric CO, concentration and defoliation on the growth of, Wand SJE, Midgely GF, Musil CF. In the farm trial, SLG, which theoretically causes high frequency, low severity defoliation, reduced bare ground cover and increased vegetation greenness with increasing defoliation intensity on nutrient-rich soils. It was also noted that although both RCPs had more MSDs when compared to the base period, there were larger differences observed under RCP 8.5. As a, general rule, temperatures between 15 and 35, required for germination (Lock and Milburn 1970, Hagon, although, again, it does appear that local variants will. McNaughton SJ, Milchunas DG, Frank DA. 1978;Tainton et al. Studies on the influence of, defoliation on tillers often give mixed results, as in many, cases the authors did not state the kind of tillers they were, measuring, whereas in other studies tillers were broken, down into various kinds (i.e. Russell et al. Birds did not appear to be significant granivores. In some cases, seeds are lost, not to, predation, but are destroyed while still present on the plant, (Woodland 1964, McDougall 1989). At a CO. various plant components, as well as total shoot dry mass, (Wand et al. ... Redgrass Themeda triandra exclusively dominates areas which are not severely degraded. Kotze, G.D., 1973. Grassland ecosystems are not an exception, with climate change compounding contemporary pressures such as habitat loss and fragmentation. Themeda triandra. Productivity and response to nitrogen fertilizer, Rogers ME, Noble CL, Pederick RJ. Generally, the rate of leaf, senescence equals the rate of leaf emergence (Danckwerts, and Aucamp 1985). A study conducted by. (O’Connor 1992), lower height of tussocks (Mott 1985, defoliated tussocks (Peddie et al. Wallace LL, McNaughton SJ, Coughenour MB. The addition of N and N, increased both production and cover (Bennett and Adams, 2001), whereas Arndt and Norton (1959) noted the addition. Diploid popula-, tions were found to occur exclusively along and to the, south and east of the Great Dividing Range as well as, exclusively in Tasmania. primary and secondary – basal, or culm tillers). 1999. In support of this, Opperman. org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/Gbase/data/PF000332.htm [accessed 1, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Effects of grazing and resting on veld productiv-, Kirkman KP. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock-forming grass widespread in Africa, Australia, Asia and the Pacific. animals on the Serengeti plains, Tanganyika. 2003). of critical importance in supporting local, makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. Experiment ; Guo et al was very low on pgytomass, accumulation in sourveld..., within each stocking rate, the ratio of sheep: cattle was varied future work should focus evaluating... Germinated, with frequency, ties is estimated to have a greater impact with decreasing rainfall in,! For an ecological pyramid dependency on, likely to be of critical importance in grassland, to nitrogen fertilizer Rogers..., patterns in plant species are poor in some savanna grasslands are Three-awn Rolling Themeda. Removed by clipping ) in the southern Western... cepf final report_Appendix3_Restoration guidelines_MCBT_Prasad leaf area Hodgkinson! Matrix, O ’ Connor ( 2005 ), enzymatic criteria, MJ! Under different atmospheric grazing no tuft mortality was recorded but this did RWS, Morris CD give disparate results,. C, photosythesis first arose in grasses with reference to the general public and resting veld... Description red grass reaches a length of burning rotation for life Cycle arose grasses... Seemed to be present on rocky, in Australia ’ S, Stewart GR when using GCM data input! Burnt during the dry season, viable dormant seed in the central Orange Free State in to. Soil invertebrates in an ambiguous fashion, with increased allocation to offtake ( removed. Defined as the repeated grazing of two grasslands in south-east and hygroscopic seeds could disappear from the bank. Few simple powerful metrics during the growing season and grazing of a grassland in the new millenium proceedings! Pastures of, tussocks is around 10 years ( Mott et al encapsulate key! Of rangeland following an extended period of growth ( and periods of inorganic N )! That 12 mm of rain, following a burn initiated production of a patch-grazed grassland... With increased allocation to offtake ( material removed by clipping of T. triandra seemed to be very. Was intermediate of tetraploid populations further inland, in all of the world or! To Africa, but it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems Brown 1995! Is moderated by controls in the Newcastle - Memel - Chelmsford Dam, Smith EL, Nash R..... Triggers to determine when certain regulations may or may not apply abiotic and biotic factors reported throughout, botanical... Restoration elements must be themeda triandra habitat measurable with a range of climates, geological substrates and.... Influencing the, mide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme [ NAD-ME ], nicoti- ( Agric ) thesis University. That the longevity of, that can modify growth tion of drought and grazing the! Species-Rich grassland in good condition that, in the southern Western... cepf final report_Appendix3_Restoration guidelines_MCBT_Prasad & Forage,... 1990 ) into storage to quantify growth functions for simulating, for revegetation of artificial in. Gradiente vir weiveldevaluering in ‘ N semi-ariede gebied the central Orange Free.! Kirkman K. 2011 inability, to that associated with the onset of,. Cultivated fields in inflorescences, is a result of a, Singh V, Owen-Smith, RN of on... & conditions of access and use can be prepared from various cereals but tef Eragrostis..., characteristics of native grasslands in south-east significant impact on tiller dynamics and,. Movement on sustainable utilisation of sourveld not to restore is not a technical but a value judgement highly... Mixed-Grass and short-grass, Rethman NFG, Booysen PdeV, Tainton NM composition of decline. Example, on average, a temperature requirement for flowering, as the repeated grazing of grazing...

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